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Android(operating system for mobile phones)

Written By riza falefi on Selasa, 28 Juni 2011 | 04.07

Android is the operating system for mobile phones based on Linux. Android provides an open platform to developers forcreating their own applications for use by various mobile devices.Initially, Google Inc.. bought Android Inc.., newcomers who make software for mobile phones. Then to develop Android, formed the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 34 companies for hardware, software, and telecommunications, including Google,HTC, Intel, Motorola, Qualcomm, T-Mobile, and Nvidia.


At the inaugural release of Android, 5 November 2007, with the Open Handset Alliance Android states support the development of open standards on mobile devices. On the other hand, Google released the Android code under the Apache license, a licensesoftware and open standard mobile device.
In this world there are two types of distributors operating systemAndroid. The first fully supported by Google or Google Mail Services (GMS) and the second is a completely free distributionwithout the direct support Google's otherwise known as the OpenHandset Distribution (OHD).



Cooperation with Android Inc.
In July 2000, Google Inc. in cooperation with Android., A company located in Palo Alto, California United States. The founders of Android Inc. working at Google, including AndyRubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, and Chris White. At that timemany consider the functions of Android Inc. just as software onmobile phones. Since then the rumors that Google is about to enter the mobile phone market. At the company Google, a team led by Rubin served to develop a program of mobile devicessupported by the Linux kernel. This is an indication that Googleis preparing for a competition in the mobile phone market.android versions of the latest version 3.0. Android also hasjoined with some smart mobile such as Nokia, Sony Ericsson,and others.



2007-2008: the initial product
Around September 2007 a ​​study reported that Google filed a patent application mobile phone (Google finally introduced theNexus, one type of GSM smart phones that use Androidoperating system. This mobile phone manufactured by HTCCorporation and is available on the market on January 5, 2010) .
On December 9, 2008, announced the new members who joinedin the work program of the Android ARM Holdings, AtherosCommunications, manufactured by Asustek Computer Inc.,Garmin Ltd., Softbank, Sony Ericsson, Toshiba Corp., andVodafone Group Plc. Along the formation of the Open HandsetAlliance, OHA announced their first product, Android, mobile device (mobile) which is a modified Linux kernel 2.6. SinceAndroid was released has been carried out various reforms in the form of bug fixes and adding new features.
The first phone using Android operation system is the HTCDream, which was released on October 22, 2008. At the end of 2009 is estimated at least in this world there are 18 types ofmobile phones that use Android.



Android version 1.1
On March 9, 2009, Google released the Android version 1.1.Android version is equipped with an aesthetic update to theapplication, alarm clock, voice search (search sound), sendingmessages to Gmail, and email notification.



Android version 1.5 (Cupcake)
In mid-May 2009, Google released the cell phone using Androidand the SDK (Software Development Kit) version 1.5 (Cupcake).There are several updates including the addition of severalfeatures in mobile version is the ability to record and watch videos with the camera mode, upload video to Youtube and images to Picasa directly from the phone, A2DP Bluetooth support, the ability to automatically connect to a Bluetooth headset, screen animations, and on-screen keyboard that can betailored to the system.
In mid-May 2009, Google released the cell phone using Androidand the SDK (Software Development Kit) version 1.5 (Cupcake).There are several updates including the addition of severalfeatures in mobile version is the ability to record and watch videos with the camera mode, upload video to Youtube and images to Picasa directly from the phone, A2DP Bluetooth support, the ability to automatically connect to a Bluetooth headset, screen animations, and on-screen keyboard that can betailored to the system.



Android version 1.6 (Donut)
Donut (version 1.6) was released in September by displaying the search process better than before, the use of a battery indicatorand control applet VPN. Another feature is the gallery that allowsthe user to select which photos will be deleted; cameras,camcorders and galleries dintegrasikan; CDMA / EVDO, 802.1x,VPN, Gestures, and Text-to-speech engine; ability to dialcontacts; technological change text to speech (not available on all phones; procurement VWGA resolution.



Android version 2.0/2.1 (Eclair)
On December 3, 2009 re-launched Android phones with version2.0/2.1 (Eclair), the changes made was the optimization of hardware, upgrade to Google Maps 3.1.2, UI changes with thenew browser and HTML5 support, a new list of contacts, supportfor camera flash third , 2 MP, digital zoom, and Bluetooth 2.1.
To move quickly in the competition next-generation devices,Google held a competition to invest with the best mobileapplications (killer apps - applications seeding). The competitionprize $ 25,000 for each selected application developers. The competition was held during the two stages of each step of the selected 50 best applications.
With the development and the increasing number of Android handsets, a growing number of interested third parties todistribute their applications to the Android operating system.Well-known applications are converted into the Androidoperating system is Shazam, Backgrounds, and WeatherBug.Android operating system in Internet sites are also considered important to create a native Android applications, for example by MySpace and Facebook.



Android version 2.2 (Froyo: Frozen Yogurt)
On May 20, 2010, the Android version 2.2 (Froyo) was launched.The changes are generally against the previous version includesupport for Adobe Flash 10.1, speed performance andapplication of 2 to 5 times faster, integration V8 JavaScriptengine used by Google Chrome speed up the rendering capabilities on the browser, the installation of applications in theSD Card, WiFi capability portable hotspot, and the ability to autoupdate in the Android Market application.




Android version 2.3 (Gingerbread)
On December 6, 2010, the Android version 2.3 (Gingerbread) was launched. The changes generally obtained from the Androidversion upgrades include games (gaming), improved copy and paste function, the screen interface (UI) was redesigned, supportand WebM VP8 video formats, the new audio effects (reverb,equalization, headphone virtualization, and bass boost), supportthe ability of Near Field Communication (NFC), and the supportof more than one camera.

featuresThe features available in Android are:
  • Application framework: it allows the use and removal ofcomponents available.
  • Dalvik virtual machine: a virtual machine optimized for mobiledevices.
  • Graphs: the graph in 2D and 3D graphics based on OpenGL libraries.
  • SQLite: for data storage.
  • Supporting media: audio, video, and various image formats(MPEG 4, H.264, MP3,
    AAC, AMR, JPG, PNG, GIF)
  • GSM, Bluetooth, EDGE, 3G, and WiFi (hardware dependent)
  • Cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS), compass, andaccelerometer (hardware dependent)


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